1. On the eve of the 71st Independence Day, President Ram Nath Kovind approved 112 gallantry awards for defence and paramilitary personnel for making sacrifices in the service of the nation. President approved 5 kirti Chakra, 2nd highest peace time gallantry award:
    Havildar Giris Gurung of Gorkha Rifles (posthumously)
    Major David Manlun of Naga Regiment (posthumously)
    Pramod Kumar, Commandant of 49 BN, CRPF (posthumously)
    Major Preetam Singh Kunwar of Garhwal Rifles
    Chetan Kumar Cheeta, Commandant, CRPF

    However the highest peacetime gallantry award, Ashok Chakra, was not given this time.
  2. Google unveiled its voice search facility in eight additional Indian languages. The new languages include Bengali, Gujarati, kannada, Malyalam, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu.


  1. Pakistan on its 70th Independence day hoisted the 120 by 180 feet flag installed on a 400 foot pole.  Pakistani authorities said the new flag was the eighth tallest in the world. The decision to hoist a flag on a 400 foot pole came after India hoisted a flag at 360 feet last year.
  2. China will halt iron, iron ore and sea food imports from North Korea, following though on new UN sanctions after U.S pressure for Beijing to strong arm Pyongyang over its ally’s nuclear programme.

Emerging Terms, News and Other:

  1. Cloud Seeding: Cloud seeding is an artificial way of inducing moisture in the clouds to cause rainfall. Recently Karnataka government decided  to commence cloud seeding in three river basin- Cauvery, Malprabha and Tungbhadra.
  2. Mahadayi river dispute– The dispute over the sharing of the water of the Mahadayi or Mandovi river between the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Goa is over 30 years old. The Kalasa-Banduri project is a part of this river.
  3. GeM– Government e-marketplace- is a one stop portal facilitating online procurement of common use goods and services required by various government department, organizations and PSUs.
  4. South Korean president Moon Jae.
  5. LTV– Loan to value ratio

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