Indian Banking Structure

a) Central Bank (RBI)
b) Specialized Banks
c) Commercial Banks
d) Development Banks
e) Co-operative Banks

Central Bank:

As its name signifies, a bank which manages and regulates the banking system of a particular country. It provides guidance to other banks whenever they face any problem (that is why the Central Bank is also known as a banker’s bank) and maintains the deposit accounts of all other
banks. Central Banks of different countries: Reserve Bank of India (INDIA), Federal Reserve System (USA), Swiss National Bank (SWITZERLAND), Reserve Bank of Australia (AUSTRALIA),
State Bank of Pakistan (PAKISTAN).

Specialized Banks:

Those banks which are meant for special purposes. For examples: NABARD, EXIM bank, SIDBI,
NABARD: National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development. This bank is meant for financing the agriculture as well as rural sector. It actually promotes research in agriculture and
rural development.

EXIM Bank: Export Import Bank of India. This bank gives loans to exporters and importers and

also provides valuable information about the international market. If you want to set up a
business for exporting products abroad or importing products from foreign countries for sale in
our country, EXIM bank can provide you the required support and assistance.

SIDBI: Small Industries Development Bank of India. This bank provides loans to set up the small scale business unit / industry. SIDBI also finances, promotes and develops small-scale industries

whereas IDBI (Industrial Development Bank of India) gives loans to big industries.

Commercial Banks:

Normal banks are known as commercial banks, their main function is to accept deposits from
the customer and on the basis of that they grant loans. (Loans could be short-term, medium term
and long-term loans.) Commercial banks are further classified into three types.
(a) Public sector Banks
(b) Private sector Banks
(c) Foreign Banks
(a) Public Sector Banks (PSB): Government banks are known as PSBs since the majority of their
stakes are held by the Government of India. (For example: Allahabad Bank, Andhra Bank, Bank
of Baroda, Bank of India, Bank of Maharastra, Canara Bank, Central Bank of India etc).

(b) Private Sector Banks: In these banks, the majority of stakes are held by the individual or

group of persons. (For example: Bank of Punjab, Bank of Rajasthan, ICICI Bank, Axis Bank etc).

(c) Foreign Banks: These banks have their headquarters in a foreign country but they operate

their branches in India. For e.g. HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN Amro Bank etc.

Development Banks:

Such banks are specially meant for giving loans to the business sector for the purchase of latest
machinery and equipment’s. Examples: SFCs (State Financial Corporation of India) and IFCI
(Industrial Finance Corporation of India).

Co-operative Banks:

These banks are nothing but an association of members who group together for self-help and
mutual-help. Their way of working is the same as of commercial banks. But they are quite
different. Co operative Banks in India are registered under the Co-operative Societies Act, 1965.
and regulated by the RBI.

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